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The similarities reveal that, even when philosophers in India and the West were grappling with the same problems and sometimes even suggesting similar theories, Indian thinkers were advancing novel formulations and argumentations.
Problems that the Indian philosophers raised for consideration, but that their Western counterparts never did, include such matters as the origin (knowledge arises from experience or from reason and distinctions such as that between analytic and synthetic judgments or between contingent and necessary truths.
Out of the presystematic age of the Vedic hymns and the Upanishads and many diverse philosophical ideas current in the pre-Buddhistic era, there emerged with the rise of the age of the sutras (aphoristic summaries of the main points of a system) a neat classification of systems ( came into existence.
But this conformism, like conformism to the Vedas, did not check the rise of independent thinking, new innovations, or original insights.
Possibly connected with their indifference toward mathematics is the significant fact that Indian philosophers have not developed formal logic.
The classical, or orthodox, systems (s) debate, sometimes with penetrating insight and often with a degree of repetition that can become tiresome to some, such matters as the status of the finite individual; the distinction as well as the relation between the body, mind, and the self; the nature of knowledge and the types of valid knowledge; the nature and origin of truth; the types of entities that may be said to exist; the relation of realism to idealism; the problem of whether universals or relations are basic; and the very important problem of The various Indian philosophies contain such a diversity of views, theories, and systems that it is almost impossible to single out characteristics that are common to all of them.With the Nyaya (problem of knowledge)–Vaisheshika (analysis of nature) systems, for example, the model of a potter making pots determined much philosophical thinking, as did that of a magician conjuring up tricks in the Advaita (nondualist) Vedanta.The ), the greatest philosopher of the Mimamsa school, posits various deities to account for the significance of Vedic rituals but ignores, without denying, the question of the existence of God.Whereas the sacred texts thus continued to exercise some influence on philosophical thinking, the influence of mythology declined considerably with the rise of the systems.The myths of creation and dissolution of the universe persisted in the theistic systems but were transformed into metaphors and models.
In a similar manner, knowledge of Western thought gained by Indian philosophers has also been advantageous to them.